## Column Basics | Types | Failure Patterns | End Conditions & Design

Column is a long cylindrical member subjected to axial compression. Column carries self-weight and load coming on it.  Generally,  load transfers through its longitudinal direction.  Column is categorized based on …

## Rankin’s Formula Example for Column Crushing/Buckling Load

It is an empirical formula used for the calculation of ultimate load both for short and long columns. Rankin’s formula is also known as Rankin Gordon Formula. It gives …

## Euler’s Crippling Load Formula and Example

Euler’s crippling load formula is used to find the buckling load of long columns. The load obtained from this formula is the ultimate load that column can take. In …

## Types of Construction Specifications

There are two types of specifications. General Specifications Detailed Specifications General Specifications General specifications provide a very brief explanation about construction materials and construction work. Generally, Architect mentioned these …

## Basic Principles of Writing Specifications

Specifications define the quality of any construction work. Therefore, specifications should be clear. Language for specifications should be such that no chance of ambiguity lefts. Specifications are the important …

## Purposes of Specifications

What are Specifications? To define the quality required, material workmanship, its properties, types and strength of construction material is known as specifications. It is such kind of information, which cannot …

## How to Locate Point of Zero Shear

The algebraic sum of all forces either to left or right side of the exact location of the unknown point treating it as ‘x’ and equate it to zero …

## How to Find Point of Contraflexure

In an overhanging beam, point of contraflexure is a point where bending moment changes it sign. Example: A point, where bending moment goes from positive to negative or from …

## Shear Force & Bending Moment Diagram of Simply Supported Beam

Shear force and bending moment diagram of simply supported beam can be drawn by first calculating value of shear force and bending moment. Shear force and bending moment values …

## Shear Force & Bending Moment of Cantilever With UDL & Point Load

In this example, readers will learn how to draw shear force & bending moment diagram of cantilever beam carrying udl(uniform distributed load) and point loads. Example Draw shear force and …