Different Components of a Building

A building is a structure constructed to meet or provide the needs and purpose of the users, whether it is a commercial, industrial, residential, institution, education, storage, assembly, etc.

A building is a combination of various components. And all building components and parts are essential materials and are designed to carry particular loads and functions. All buildings have the same elements, such as roofs, rooms, floors, walls, and foundations. Buildings have three major classification parts, which are:

Substructure or Foundation

It consists of the building parts below ground level. The function of this substructure is to transmit the building load from the superstructure to the soil. A substructure or foundation should withstand any seismic force exerted by the ground, so it is often concrete and steel bars and filling materials such as clay bricks, stones, etc., depending on the type of structures. A shallow building foundation is adapted for RCC and load-bearing structures.


 The plinth is the one controlling the differential settlements that connect all columns from the building foundation. It is a vital component because it combines the level between the superstructure and substructure of the building. The plinth is located below the superstructure and immediately above the ground level to prevent water leakage.


The superstructure or the “bridge deck” is part of a structure above ground level whose function is to serve the purpose of the building. It is an upward extension of the ground level, which houses other building components such as columns, beams, roof, floor, etc.

Some More Building Components

Aside from the three significant parts above, buildings also have other essential components and must be constructed appropriately to ensure a safe structure. Here are some of them:

Beams And Roof Slab

  • Beams

They are the horizontal components of the building and serve as structural members for slabs and connecting columns. It carries and transmits live and dead loads from the building structure to columns. The size varies depending on the total load acting on it. And it is made of reinforced concrete and steel.

  • Roof Slab

Roof slabs are also a horizontal structure and provide a base to ceiling and floor to the users of adjacent building stories. The slab connects the columns and beams. It also distributes and supports load from beam structure to column. The upper portion of the slab serves as the floor between the two adjacent stories, and the lower part serves as the ceiling. It consists of concrete and reinforcement steel bars materials.

  • Walls

Walls are vertical components of the building which serve as a partition between two spaces and cover all the external parts of the building. It is also ideal for Security Access Doors and Panels installation. 

In some load-bearing structures, walls also serve as structural members and help carry the weight of the building and transmit the load going to the brickwork foundation underneath the ground.

Most exterior wall materials are solid or hollow concrete blocks, burnt clay, bricks, CLC blocks, AAC blocks, etc.

And internal wall partitions can be constructed using other materials like gypsum boards and plywoods.

  • Flooring

It is a finishing layer provided to the roof slab, which separates two adjacent stories of the building. The flooring is the platform to the roof slab together with a proper sloping of water drainage. 

There are numerous materials available for flooring finish, such as granite, marble, tile, wood, brick flooring, timber laminates, etc.

Windows And Doors

  • Doors

It provides entry or exit openings to occupants or users going into different spaces in the building. It plays an essential role in the circulation of users from one room to another. Doors can maintain privacy in the building. Unique doors like access panel doors or security access doors and panels are also essential in every building for safety purposes. 

  • Window

The window provides an opening circulation of air and sunlight inside spaces of the building. It is mostly on external walls. It has a variety of shapes; it can be circular, rectangular, or elliptical. They usually have a glass with a framing material on it. The framing material can be aluminum, wood, UPVC, etc.

  • Roof

It is the upper-level part of the building. It protects from any external elements like rain, hail, storms, etc. There are various roofing materials nowadays, but flat roofs, fiber cement roofs, cool roofs, and domestic shelters are typical in commercial buildings. 

Final Thoughts

All building components, such as the superstructure, substructure, and plinth, are essential and have special specific functions in the building’s structure. Nowadays, many new building structures have a green strategy, which has a tremendous positive impact on our society and our environment.

With technology progressing continuously, the construction industry will undoubtedly continue to improve the different building components to increase the durability of the structure and the safety of the occupants.

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