# Simple Stresses And Strains Formulas

Following are the formulas relating to simple stresses and strains.

• Simple Stress
$$Stress\space\ = \frac{force}{Area}$$
• Simple Strain

$$Strain\space\ = \frac{Increase\space\ in\space\ length}{Original\space\ length}$$

• Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
$$Young’s\space\ Modulus\space\ = \frac{Stress}{Strain}$$
• Poison’s Ratio
$$Posion’s\space\ Ratio\space\ =\frac{1}{m}$$
• Volumetric Strain
$$Volumetric\space\ Strain\space\ = \frac{Change\space\ in\space\ volume}{Original\space\ volume}$$
• Proportional Limit Stress
$$Proportional\space\ limit\space\ stress\space\ = \frac{Proportional\space\ limit\space\ stress}{Area}$$
• Ultimate Stress
$$Ultimate\space\ stress\space\ =\frac{Ultimate\space\ load}{Area}$$
• Actual Breaking Stress
$$Actual\space\ breaking\space\ stress\space\ = \frac{Breaking\space\ load}{Final\space\ area}$$
• Nominal Breaking Stress
$$Nominal\space\ breaking\space\ stress\space = \frac{Breaking\space\ load}{Original\space\ area}$$
• Percentage Elongation
$$Percentage\space\ Elongation\space\ =\frac{(Final\space length\space\ -\space\ Original\space\ length)\times 100}{Original\space\ length}$$
• Percentage Reduction
$$Percentage\space\ reduction\space\ = \frac{(Original\space\ area\space\ -\space\ Final\space\ area)\times 100}{Original\space\ area}$$